Adjoint Solver#
Meep contains an adjointsolver module for efficiently computing the
gradient of an arbitrary function of the mode coefficients
(parameters), DFT fields, local density of states (LDOS), and
"far" fields with respect to on a discrete spatial grid
(a MaterialGrid
class
object) at multiple frequencies over a broad bandwidth. Regardless of
the number of degrees of freedom for the grid points, just two
distinct timestepping runs are required. The first run is the
"forward" calculation to compute the objective function and the DFT
fields of the design region. The second run is the "adjoint"
calculation to compute the gradient of the objective function with
respect to the design variables. The adjoint run involves a special
type of current source distribution used to compute the DFT fields of
the design region. The gradient is computed in post processing using
the DFT fields from the forward and adjoint runs. The gradient
calculation is fully automated. The theoretical and computational
details of the adjointsolver module are described in this
publication:
 A. M. Hammond, A. Oskooi, M. Chen, Z. Lin, S. G. Johnson, and S. E. Ralph, “Highperformance hybrid time/frequencydomain topology optimization for largescale photonics inverse design,” Optics Express, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 4467–4491 (2022).
Much of the functionality of the adjoint solver is implemented in Python using autograd as well as JAX.
The adjoint solver supports inverse design and topology optimization by providing the functionality to wrap an optimization library around the gradient computation. The adjoint solver also supports enforcing minimum feature sizes on the optimal design in 1D (line width and spacing) and 2D (arbitraryshaped holes and islands). This is demonstrated in several tutorials below.
Broadband Waveguide Mode Converter with Minimum Feature Size#
This example demonstrates some of the advanced functionality of the adjoint solver including worstcase (minimax) optimization across multiple wavelengths, multiple objective functions, and design constraints on the minimum line width and line spacing. The design problem involves a broadband waveguide mode converter in 2D with minimum feature size. This is based on M.F. Schubert et al., ACS Photonics, Vol. 9, pp. 232736, (2022).
The mode converter must satisfy two separate design objectives: (1) minimize the reflectance into the fundamental mode of the input port () and (2) maximize the transmittance into the secondorder mode of the output port (). There are different ways to define this multiobjective and multiwavelength optimization. The approach taken here is worstcase optimization whereby we minimize the maximum (the worst case) of and across six wavelengths in the band for telecommunications. This is known as minimax optimization. The fundamental mode launched from the input port has polarization given a 2D cell in the plane.
The challenge with minimax optimization is that the objective function is not everywhere differentiable. This property would seem to preclude the use of gradientbased optimization algorithms for this problem which involves twelve independent functions ( and for each of six wavelengths). Fortunately, there is a workaround: the problem can be reformulated as a differentiable problem using a socalled "epigraph" formulation: introducing a new "dummy" optimization variable and adding each independent function as a new nonlinear constraint . See the NLopt documentation for an overview of this approach. (Note: this tutorial example requires NLopt version 2.7.0 or higher.) The minimax/epigraph approach is also covered in the neartofar field tutorial.
In this example, we use a minimum feature size of 150 nm for the linewidth and linespacing. The implementation of these constraints in the adjointsolver module is based on A.M. Hammond et al., Optics Express, Vol. 29, pp. 2391638 (2021).
There are six important items to highlight in the set up of this optimization problem:

The lengthscale constraint is activated only in the final epoch. It is often helpful to binarize the design using a large value for the projection operator (hyperbolic tangent) before this final epoch. This is because the lengthscale constraint forces binarization which could induce large changes in an initial grayscale design and thus irrevocably spoil the performance of the final design. Note that regardless of the value of , projecting the design weights will produce grayscale values between 0 and 1 whenever .

The initial value of the epigraph variable of the final epoch (in which the minimum feature size constraint is imposed) should take into account the value of the constraint itself. This ensures a feasible starting point for the method of moving asymptotes (MMA) optimization algorithm, (which is based on the conservative convex separable approximation (CCSA) algorithm).

The edge of the design region is padded by a filter radius (rather than e.g., a single pixel) to produce measured minimum feature sizes of the final design that are consistent with the imposed constraint.

The hyperparameters of the featuresize constraint function (
a1
,b1
, andc0
in theglc
function of the script below), need to be chosen carefully to produce final designs which do not significantly degrade the performance of the unconstrained designs at the start of the final epoch. 
Damping of the design weights is used for the early epochs in which the parameter of the projection function is small (< ~50) and the design is mostly grayscale in order to induce binarization.

The subpixelsmoothing feature of the
MaterialGrid
is necessary whenever the parameter of the projection function is large (> ~50) and thus the design is binary (or nearly so). Without subpixel smoothing, then the gradients are nearly zero except for where the derivatives and second derivatives blow up, causing optimization algorithms to break down. When subpixel smoothing is enabled (do_averaging=True
), the weights are projected internally using thebeta
parameter. For this reason, any preprocessing (i.e., mapping) of the weights outside of theMaterialGrid
should apply only a filter to the weights but must not perform any projection.
A schematic of the final design and the simulation layout is shown below. The minimum feature size of the final design, measured using a ruler, is 165 nm. This value is consistent with the imposed constraint since it is approximately within one design pixel (10 nm).
A plot of the reflectance and transmittance spectrum in linear and log (dB) scales of the final design is shown below. The worstcase reflectance is 17.7 dB at a wavelength of 1.295 μm. The worstcase transmittance is 2.1 dB at a wavelength of 1.265 μm.
A plot of the objectivefunction history (worst case or maximum value across the six wavelengths) for this design is also shown. The "spikes" present in the plot are a normal feature of nonlinearoptimization algorithms. The algorithm may take too large a step which turns out to make the objective function worse. This means the algorithm then has to "backtrack" and take a smaller step. This occurs in the CCSA algorithm by increasing a penalty term. Also, even though the worstcase objective function is constant during most of the first epoch which may indicate the optimizer is making no progress, in fact the optimizer is working to improve the objective function at the other (non worstcase) wavelengths.
Finally, here are additional designs generated using constraints on the minimum feature size of 50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, and 225 nm. The designs with smaller minimum feature sizes are clearly distinguishable from the designs with the larger ones.
The table below shows a comparison of the imposed constraint on the minimum feature size of the optimizer versus the measured minimum linewidth and linespacing for the five designs presented in this tutorial. There is fairly consistent agreement in the constraint and measured values except for the design with the largest minimum feature size (225 nm vs. 277 nm). For cases in which the measured minimum feature size is significantly larger than the constraint used in the optimization, this could be an indication that the final design can be improved by a better choice of the hyperparameters in the featuresize constraint function. Generally, one should expect the constraint and measured values to agree within a length of about one to two designregion pixels (10 nm, in this example).
constraint (nm)  measured linewidth (nm)  measured linespacing (nm) 

50  85  60 
70  103  85 
90  109  134 
150  221  165 
225  277  681 
Finally, a plot of the worstcase reflectance and transmittance versus the imposed constraint on the minimum feature size is shown below for the five designs. The general trend of decreasing performance (i.e., increasing reflectance and decreasing transmittance) with increasing minimum feature size is evident.
The script is python/examples/adjoint_optimization/mode_converter.py. The runtime of this script using three Intel Xeon 2.0 GHz processors is approximately 14 hours.
import numpy as np
import matplotlib
matplotlib.use("agg")
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from autograd import numpy as npa, tensor_jacobian_product, grad
import nlopt
import meep as mp
import meep.adjoint as mpa
from typing import NamedTuple
resolution = 50 # pixels/μm
w = 0.4 # waveguide width
l = 3.0 # waveguide length (on each side of design region)
dpad = 0.6 # padding length above/below design region
dpml = 1.0 # PML thickness
dx = 1.6 # length of design region
dy = 1.6 # width of design region
sx = dpml + l + dx + l + dpml
sy = dpml + dpad + dy + dpad + dpml
cell_size = mp.Vector3(sx, sy, 0)
pml_layers = [mp.PML(thickness=dpml)]
# wavelengths for minimax optimization
wvls = (1.265, 1.270, 1.275, 1.285, 1.290, 1.295)
frqs = [1 / wvl for wvl in wvls]
minimum_length = 0.15 # minimum length scale (μm)
eta_i = 0.5 # blueprint design field thresholding point (between 0 and 1)
eta_e = 0.75 # erosion design field thresholding point (between 0 and 1)
eta_d = 1  eta_e # dilation design field thresholding point (between 0 and 1)
filter_radius = mpa.get_conic_radius_from_eta_e(minimum_length, eta_e)
print(f"filter_radius:, {filter_radius:.6f}")
# pulsed source center frequency and bandwidth
wvl_min = 1.26
wvl_max = 1.30
frq_min = 1 / wvl_max
frq_max = 1 / wvl_min
fcen = 0.5 * (frq_min + frq_max)
df = frq_max  frq_min
eig_parity = mp.ODD_Z
src_pt = mp.Vector3(0.5 * sx + dpml, 0, 0)
nSiO2 = 1.5
SiO2 = mp.Medium(index=nSiO2)
nSi = 3.5
Si = mp.Medium(index=nSi)
design_region_size = mp.Vector3(dx, dy, 0)
design_region_resolution = int(2 * resolution)
Nx = int(design_region_size.x * design_region_resolution) + 1
Ny = int(design_region_size.y * design_region_resolution) + 1
# impose a bit "mask" of thickness equal to the filter radius
# around the edges of the design region in order to prevent
# violations of the minimum feature size constraint.
x_g = np.linspace(
design_region_size.x / 2,
design_region_size.x / 2,
Nx,
)
y_g = np.linspace(
design_region_size.y / 2,
design_region_size.y / 2,
Ny,
)
X_g, Y_g = np.meshgrid(
x_g,
y_g,
sparse=True,
indexing="ij",
)
left_wg_mask = (X_g <= design_region_size.x / 2 + filter_radius) & (
np.abs(Y_g) <= w / 2
)
right_wg_mask = (X_g >= design_region_size.x / 2  filter_radius) & (
np.abs(Y_g) <= w / 2
)
Si_mask = left_wg_mask  right_wg_mask
border_mask = (
(X_g <= design_region_size.x / 2 + filter_radius)
 (X_g >= design_region_size.x / 2  filter_radius)
 (Y_g <= design_region_size.y / 2 + filter_radius)
 (Y_g >= design_region_size.y / 2  filter_radius)
)
SiO2_mask = border_mask.copy()
SiO2_mask[Si_mask] = False
refl_pt = mp.Vector3(0.5 * sx + dpml + 0.5 * l)
tran_pt = mp.Vector3(0.5 * sx  dpml  0.5 * l)
stop_cond = mp.stop_when_fields_decayed(50, mp.Ez, refl_pt, 1e8)
def mapping(x: np.ndarray, eta: float, beta: float) > np.ndarray:
"""A differentiable mapping function which applies, in order,
the following sequence of transformations to the design weights:
(1) a bit mask for the boundary pixels, (2) convolution with a
conic filter, and (3) projection via a hyperbolic tangent (if
necessary).
Args:
x: design weights as a 1d array of size Nx*Ny.
eta: erosion/dilation parameter for the projection.
beta: bias parameter for the projection. A value of 0 is no projection.
Returns:
The mapped design weights as a 1d array.
"""
x = npa.where(
Si_mask.flatten(),
1,
npa.where(
SiO2_mask.flatten(),
0,
x,
),
)
filtered_field = mpa.conic_filter(
x,
filter_radius,
design_region_size.x,
design_region_size.y,
design_region_resolution,
)
if beta == 0:
return filtered_field.flatten()
else:
projected_field = mpa.tanh_projection(
filtered_field,
beta,
eta,
)
return projected_field.flatten()
def f(x: np.ndarray, grad: np.ndarray) > float:
"""Objective function for the epigraph formulation.
Args:
x: 1d array of size 1+Nx*Ny containing epigraph variable (first element)
and design weights (remaining Nx*Ny elements).
grad: the gradient as a 1d array of size 1+Nx*Ny modified in place.
Returns:
The epigraph variable (a scalar).
"""
t = x[0] # epigraph variable
v = x[1:] # design weights
if grad.size > 0:
grad[0] = 1
grad[1:] = 0
return t
def c(result: np.ndarray, x: np.ndarray, gradient: np.ndarray, eta: float,
beta: float, use_epsavg: bool):
"""Constraint function for the epigraph formulation.
Args:
result: the result of the function evaluation modified in place.
x: 1d array of size 1+Nx*Ny containing epigraph variable (first
element) and design weights (remaining Nx*Ny elements).
gradient: the Jacobian matrix with dimensions (1+Nx*Ny,
2*num. wavelengths) modified in place.
eta: erosion/dilation parameter for projection.
beta: bias parameter for projection.
use_epsavg: whether to use subpixel smoothing.
"""
t = x[0] # epigraph variable
v = x[1:] # design weights
f0, dJ_du = opt([mapping(v, eta, 0 if use_epsavg else beta)])
f0_reflection = f0[0]
f0_transmission = f0[1]
f0_merged = np.concatenate((f0_reflection, f0_transmission))
f0_merged_str = '[' + ','.join(str(ff) for ff in f0_merged) + ']'
dJ_du_reflection = dJ_du[0]
dJ_du_transmission = dJ_du[1]
nfrq = len(frqs)
my_grad = np.zeros((Nx * Ny, 2 * nfrq))
my_grad[:, :nfrq] = dJ_du_reflection
my_grad[:, nfrq:] = dJ_du_transmission
# backpropagate the gradients through mapping function
for k in range(2 * nfrq):
my_grad[:, k] = tensor_jacobian_product(mapping, 0)(
v,
eta,
beta,
my_grad[:, k],
)
if gradient.size > 0:
gradient[:, 0] = 1 # gradient w.r.t. epigraph variable ("t")
gradient[:, 1:] = my_grad.T # gradient w.r.t. each frequency objective
result[:] = np.real(f0_merged)  t
objfunc_history.append(np.real(f0_merged))
epivar_history.append(t)
print(
f"iteration:, {cur_iter[0]:3d}, eta: {eta}, beta: {beta:2d}, "
f"t: {t:.5f}, obj. func.: {f0_merged_str}"
)
cur_iter[0] = cur_iter[0] + 1
def glc(result: np.ndarray, x: np.ndarray, gradient: np.ndarray,
beta: float) > float:
"""Constraint function for the minimum linewidth.
Args:
result: the result of the function evaluation modified in place.
x: 1d array of size 1+Nx*Ny containing epigraph variable (first
element) and design weights (remaining elements).
gradient: the Jacobian matrix with dimensions (1+Nx*Ny,
num. wavelengths) modified in place.
beta: bias parameter for projection.
Returns:
The value of the constraint function (a scalar).
"""
t = x[0] # dummy parameter
v = x[1:] # design parameters
a1 = 1e3 # hyper parameter (primary)
b1 = 0 # hyper parameter (secondary)
gradient[:, 0] = a1
filter_f = lambda a: mpa.conic_filter(
a.reshape(Nx, Ny),
filter_radius,
design_region_size.x,
design_region_size.y,
design_region_resolution,
)
threshold_f = lambda a: mpa.tanh_projection(a, beta, eta_i)
# hyper parameter (constant factor and exponent)
c0 = 1e7 * (filter_radius * 1 / resolution) ** 4
M1 = lambda a: mpa.constraint_solid(a, c0, eta_e, filter_f, threshold_f, 1)
M2 = lambda a: mpa.constraint_void(a, c0, eta_d, filter_f, threshold_f, 1)
g1 = grad(M1)(v)
g2 = grad(M2)(v)
result[0] = M1(v)  a1 * t  b1
result[1] = M2(v)  a1 * t  b1
gradient[0, 1:] = g1.flatten()
gradient[1, 1:] = g2.flatten()
t1 = (M1(v)  b1) / a1
t2 = (M2(v)  b1) / a1
print(f"glc:, {result[0]}, {result[1]}, {t1}, {t2}")
return max(t1, t2)
def straight_waveguide() > (np.ndarray, NamedTuple):
"""Computes the DFT fields from the mode source in a straight waveguide
for use as normalization of the reflectance measurement during the
optimization.
Returns:
A 2tuple consisting of a 1d array of DFT fields and DFT fields object
returned by `meep.get_flux_data`.
"""
sources = [
mp.EigenModeSource(
src=mp.GaussianSource(fcen, fwidth=df),
size=mp.Vector3(0, sy, 0),
center=src_pt,
eig_band=1,
eig_parity=eig_parity,
)
]
geometry = [
mp.Block(
size=mp.Vector3(mp.inf, w, mp.inf),
center=mp.Vector3(),
material=Si,
)
]
sim = mp.Simulation(
resolution=resolution,
default_material=SiO2,
cell_size=cell_size,
sources=sources,
geometry=geometry,
boundary_layers=pml_layers,
k_point=mp.Vector3(),
)
refl_mon = sim.add_mode_monitor(
frqs,
mp.ModeRegion(center=refl_pt, size=mp.Vector3(0, sy, 0)),
yee_grid=True,
)
sim.run(until_after_sources=stop_cond)
res = sim.get_eigenmode_coefficients(
refl_mon,
[1],
eig_parity=eig_parity,
)
coeffs = res.alpha
input_flux = np.abs(coeffs[0, :, 0]) ** 2
input_flux_data = sim.get_flux_data(refl_mon)
return input_flux, input_flux_data
def mode_converter_optimization(
input_flux: np.ndarray,
input_flux_data: NamedTuple,
use_damping: bool,
use_epsavg: bool,
beta: float) > mpa.OptimizationProblem:
"""Sets up the adjoint optimization of the waveguide mode converter.
Args:
input_flux: 1d array of DFT fields from normalization run.
input_flux_data: DFT fields object returned by `meep.get_flux_data`.
use_damping: whether to use the damping feature of `MaterialGrid`.
use_epsavg: whether to use subpixel smoothing in `MaterialGrid`.
Returns:
A `meep.adjoint.OptimizationProblem` class object.
"""
matgrid = mp.MaterialGrid(
mp.Vector3(Nx, Ny, 0),
SiO2,
Si,
weights=np.ones((Nx, Ny)),
beta=beta if use_epsavg else 0,
do_averaging=True if use_epsavg else False,
damping=0.02 * 2 * np.pi * fcen if use_damping else 0,
)
matgrid_region = mpa.DesignRegion(
matgrid,
volume=mp.Volume(
center=mp.Vector3(),
size=mp.Vector3(design_region_size.x, design_region_size.y, mp.inf),
),
)
matgrid_geometry = [
mp.Block(
center=matgrid_region.center,
size=matgrid_region.size,
material=matgrid,
)
]
geometry = [
mp.Block(
center=mp.Vector3(),
size=mp.Vector3(mp.inf, w, mp.inf),
material=Si,
)
]
geometry += matgrid_geometry
sources = [
mp.EigenModeSource(
src=mp.GaussianSource(fcen, fwidth=df),
size=mp.Vector3(0, sy, 0),
center=src_pt,
eig_band=1,
eig_parity=eig_parity,
),
]
sim = mp.Simulation(
resolution=resolution,
default_material=SiO2,
cell_size=cell_size,
sources=sources,
geometry=geometry,
boundary_layers=pml_layers,
k_point=mp.Vector3(),
)
obj_list = [
mpa.EigenmodeCoefficient(
sim,
mp.Volume(
center=refl_pt,
size=mp.Vector3(0, sy, 0),
),
1,
forward=False,
eig_parity=eig_parity,
subtracted_dft_fields=input_flux_data,
),
mpa.EigenmodeCoefficient(
sim,
mp.Volume(
center=tran_pt,
size=mp.Vector3(0, sy, 0),
),
2,
eig_parity=eig_parity,
),
]
def J1(refl_mon, tran_mon):
return npa.power(npa.abs(refl_mon), 2) / input_flux
def J2(refl_mon, tran_mon):
return 1  npa.power(npa.abs(tran_mon), 2) / input_flux
opt = mpa.OptimizationProblem(
simulation=sim,
objective_functions=[J1, J2],
objective_arguments=obj_list,
design_regions=[matgrid_region],
frequencies=frqs,
)
return opt
if __name__ == "__main__":
input_flux, input_flux_data = straight_waveguide()
algorithm = nlopt.LD_MMA
# number of design parameters
n = Nx * Ny
# initial design parameters
x = np.ones((n,)) * 0.5
x[Si_mask.flatten()] = 1.0 # set the edges of waveguides to silicon
x[SiO2_mask.flatten()] = 0.0 # set the other edges to SiO2
# lower and upper bounds for design weights
lb = np.zeros((n,))
lb[Si_mask.flatten()] = 1.0
ub = np.ones((n,))
ub[SiO2_mask.flatten()] = 0.0
# insert epigraph variable initial value (arbitrary) and bounds into the
# design array. the actual value is determined by the objective and
# constraint functions below.
x = np.insert(x, 0, 1.2)
lb = np.insert(lb, 0, np.inf)
ub = np.insert(ub, 0, +np.inf)
objfunc_history = []
epivar_history = []
cur_iter = [0]
beta_thresh = 64 # threshold beta above which to use subpixel smoothing
betas = [8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256]
max_evals = [80, 80, 100, 120, 120, 100]
tol_epi = np.array([1e4] * 2 * len(frqs)) # R, 1T
tol_lw = np.array([1e8] * 2) # line width, line spacing
for beta, max_eval in zip(betas, max_evals):
solver = nlopt.opt(algorithm, n + 1)
solver.set_lower_bounds(lb)
solver.set_upper_bounds(ub)
solver.set_min_objective(f)
solver.set_maxeval(max_eval)
solver.set_param("dual_ftol_rel", 1e7)
solver.add_inequality_mconstraint(
lambda rr, xx, gg: c(
rr,
xx,
gg,
eta_i,
beta,
False if beta < beta_thresh else True,
),
tol_epi,
)
solver.set_param("verbosity", 1)
opt = mode_converter_optimization(
input_flux,
input_flux_data,
True, # use_damping
False if beta < beta_thresh else True, # use_epsavg
beta,
)
# apply the minimum linewidth constraint
# only in the final epoch to an initial
# binary design from the previous epoch.
if beta == betas[1]:
res = np.zeros(2)
grd = np.zeros((2, n + 1))
t = glc(res, x, grd, beta)
solver.add_inequality_mconstraint(
lambda rr, xx, gg: glc(
rr,
xx,
gg,
beta,
),
tol_lw,
)
# execute a single forward run before the start of each
# epoch and manually set the initial epigraph variable to
# slightly larger than the largest value of the objective
# function over the six wavelengths and the lengthscale
# constraint (final epoch only).
t0 = opt(
[
mapping(
x[1:],
eta_i,
beta if beta < beta_thresh else 0,
),
],
need_gradient=False,
)
t0 = np.concatenate((t0[0][0], t0[0][1]))
t0_str = '[' + ','.join(str(tt) for tt in t0) + ']'
x[0] = np.amax(t0)
x[0] = 1.05 * (max(x[0], t) if beta == betas[1] else x[0])
print(f"data:, {beta}, {t0_str}, {x[0]}")
x[:] = solver.optimize(x)
optimal_design_weights = mapping(
x[1:],
eta_i,
beta,
).reshape(Nx, Ny)
# save the unmapped weights and a bitmap image
# of the design weights at the end of each epoch.
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.imshow(
optimal_design_weights,
cmap="binary",
interpolation="none",
)
ax.set_axis_off()
if mp.am_master():
fig.savefig(
f"optimal_design_beta{beta}.png",
dpi=150,
bbox_inches="tight",
)
# save the final (unmapped) design as a 2d array in CSV format
np.savetxt(
f"unmapped_design_weights_beta{beta}.csv",
x[1:].reshape(Nx, Ny),
fmt="%4.2f",
delimiter=",",
)
# save all the important optimization parameters and output
# as separate arrays in a single file for post processing.
with open("optimal_design.npz", "wb") as fl:
np.savez(
fl,
Nx=Nx,
Ny=Ny,
design_region_size=(dx, dy),
design_region_resolution=design_region_resolution,
betas=betas,
max_eval=max_eval,
objfunc_history=objfunc_history,
epivar_history=epivar_history,
t=x[0],
unmapped_design_weights=x[1:],
minimum_length=minimum_length,
optimal_design_weights=optimal_design_weights,
)
Compact Notebook Tutorials of Basic Features#
As an alternative to the first tutorial which combined multiple features into a single demonstration, there are six notebook tutorials that demonstrate various basic features of the adjoint solver.