Meep originated as part of graduate research at MIT with initial contributions by Steven G. Johnson, Ardavan Oskooi, David Roundy, Mihai Ibanescu, and Peter Bermel. Currently, the Meep project is maintained by Simpetus and the developer community on GitHub. Christopher Hogan and M.T. Homer Reid lead the development of the Python interface, mode-decomposition feature, and GDSII import routines. M.T. Homer Reid and Alec Hammond developed the adjoint solver. Alex Cerjan assisted with adding support for saturable absorption via multilevel atomic gain media. Alec Hammond developed the visualization module. Yidong Chong and Alex Cerjan added support for gyrotropic media.


We request that you cite the following technical reference in any work for which you used Meep:

If you want a one-sentence description of the algorithm for inclusion in a publication, we recommend something like:

  • "Simulations were performed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method [ref FDTD], using an open-source software package [ref Meep]."

General references on the FDTD method include, for example:

Financial Support

Meep's continued development has been supported by Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 and 2 awards from the National Science Foundation (NSF) under award numbers 1647206 and 1758596. Initial development was supported in part by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center program of the NSF under award numbers DMR-9400334 and DMR-0819762, by the Army Research Office through the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies under DAAD-19-02-D0002, and DARPA under N00014-05-1-0700 administered by the Office of Naval Research.